Linux Basics

Linux was generally command line Operating System when established, Due to its huge popularity we have GUI [Graphical User Interface] Or "Windows In Linux"

Windows in Linux 

The basic System for Graphical Environment in Linux is "X-Windows", "X-windows" or "X-Free-86". Running within "X" is a windows manager or a complete Environment knowns as "Desktop". The most common "desktops" are Gnome or KDE, but there are more lightweight "windows manager" that run within X. Though it offers Windows Like Environment, But Linux is centered arround the Command Line.  

Basics Of Linux Operating System

Whenever Linux Starts, It launch GUI, If you want to open Command Line it can be launched by pressing following commands:-

1). Ctrl+Alt+F1
2). Ctrl+Alt+F2
3). Ctrl+Alt+F3
4). Ctrl+Alt+F4
5). Ctrl+Alt+F5
6). Ctrl+Alt+F6

To start X-Windows from a command Line :-

startx

When you press this, it will start up X-Windows server & display the default windows manager. 

Understanding above "startx" command, when You type "startx" and press enter, it opens

startx --:0

This identifies that it is loaded with display 0.

So, You can open several Windows with this command just by changine from 0 to number like

startx --:1 or startx--:2 or startx --:3

To switch between different environment, you can type

1). ctrl+alt+F7 or
2). ctrl+alt+F8

To get the command line from GUI, it's very easy too.

1). Applications=>Accessories=>Terminal. or
2). F12

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