Command Line More

First Let us see some, time saving feature we call them shortcut keys.

1). Tab -> I have discussed this in part 1 too. what it does is if there is no other files with similar words it will complete the wordsl


What it will do is, it will make. /usr/local/mysql as there might not be other file starting with my, now next :)

2). Wildcards -> The most common wildcard is (*). This *(asterisk) will display all commands.. as in mysql too * means all. similar in linux too

E.g, ls /usr/local/* this will display all files and folders located in directories local.

3). ~ (tilde) -> This character is short for the current users home directory,

for e.g, mine is /home/w3clan, similarily it could vary as per your username. If you enter cd ~/my_dir, the linux will take you to

/home/w3clan(your_username_here)/mydir folder.

4). (.) dot -> This character refers to the current directory. For example if you have downloaded some file and you want to execute the program in same folder than just type


5). (..) two dots -> This directory will change the foder from current directory to parent directory.

for E.g, If you are in /home/w3clan/Desktop/WOH than typing

cd ..

It will take you to /home directory

6). & (ampersand) -> If you use this command this will help in running the file in background E.g,

yourfile &

this will let file to run in background.

Common Commands

1). ls -> In Linux, ls means "dir". we have -al as parameter which means to list all files(including hidden files {do you remember when I(w3clan) said any file which has (.) dot in intial letter means those files are hidden}.

now, what if we have huge no. of files there, than it will bring all pages at once and we will be able to see only last page, thus we have command called |more which pauses the display after each screenful. overall this command is

ls -al|more

2). cd -> This command means "change directory", so when cd is followed by directory name, than that directory becomes active directory,

for e.g, suppose we are in /home/w3clan/Desktop and when we type cd /usr/local than /usr/local will become current directory.

3). pwd -> This means "print working directoy", and displays the current working directory.

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